Relative Clauses #11: Advanced non-defining Relative Clauses

First, read the earlier posts on Relative Clauses, especially #3 and #6.

Advanced non-defining Relative Clauses are not as difficult as their name suggests. There are only two Relative Clause Pronouns used, whom & which, and the Relative Clause is usually at the end of the sentence.

If you are studying for an IELTS or CAMBRIDGE  exam, or any test in which you have to write well, you will need to show that you can incorporate Relative Clauses into your sentences. 

Advanced non-defining Relative Clauses are easy to create because you can just add them to the end of a sentence, and the result is impressive Complex grammar. They can refer to some or all of the information contained in the previous part of the sentence or just one word.

♦  Next year, I’m going to Sicily and Malta with my sister. I’m really looking forward to it.

When I say ‘I’m really looking forward to it , I am not just talking about Sicily and Malta.  I am also talking about going with my sister next year. It relates to the whole sentence:  Next year, I’m going to Sicily and Malta with my sister.

The two simple sentences above are okay for speaking but not good enough for writing. It’s easy to improve them with a Relative Clause. When you have a pronoun (in this example, it) which refers to a previous sentence or clause, you can use an Advanced non-defining Relative Clause:

♦  Next year, I’m going to Sicily and Malta with my sister, which I’m really looking forward to.

Q. What am I looking forward to?  A. Going to Sicily and Malta with my sister next year.
Q. What am I looking forward to?  A. It.

The Relative Pronoun which replaces it.

Here are more examples of sentences with Advanced non-defining Relative Clauses.

#1.  Germany won the FIFA World Cup in 2014, which really annoyed some people.

#2.  Even though they have six children and seemed to be the perfect couple, Angelina Jolie and Brad Pitt separated in 2016, which shocked a lot of people.

Here are more examples of how to combine two sentences with an Advanced non-defining Relative ClauseThem is an object pronoun, so for people we need to use the Relative Pronoun whom.

#3. I have two sisters. Both of them live in Melbourne. 

I have two sisters, both of whom live in Melbourne. 

#4. I have  three brothers. Two of them live in Melbourne.

I have three brothers, two of whom live in Melbourne.

#5. I have two children. One of them lives in Queensland. One lives in Sydney.

I have two children, one of whom lives in Queensland and one of whom lives in Sydney.

I have two children, neither of whom lives in Melbourne.

#6. There are several choices for breakfast. They all look delicious and healthy.

                                                                                           All of them look delicious and healthy.

There are several choices for breakfast, all of which look delicious and  healthy.

We use which for objects/things and whom for people.

The following table lists common Relative Clause Phrases used in Advanced non-defining Relative Clauses:

Which

Whom

 Which
One of which One of whom
Two of which Two of whom
Both of which Both of whom
Neither of which Neither of whom
Most of which Most of whom
All of which All of whom
Some of which Some  of whom
None of which None of whom
3, 4, a few, several etc … of which 3,4, a few, several etc …  of whom

I’m sure that if you can see the patterns and create examples which are relevant to you, you will remember the rules more easily. I suggest that you write down the following sentences and fill in the gaps with your own information. *Remember to use a verb in the Advanced non-defining Relative Clauses and the verb must agree with the number; for example, one lives, none wants, neither lives, all look, both are.

♦ My two favourite movies are ________ and ________ , both of which _______ ________ .

♦ Three songs I love are ________ , ________ , and ________ , all of which ___
_____________.

♦ At High School, I studied ________ , ________ , and ________ , only one of which I ________ .

♦ I have (number) close friends, one of whom is ________ , and one of whom is ___
________ .

♦ Next year, I’m going to _______________ , which I’m really looking forward to.

Now, try writing some sentences about your family and where they live, similar to the ones I’ve written above about my family, all of which are true sentences! Just copy the pattern. If you would like me to check your sentences, you can write to me by clicking on Contact Me at the top of the page, or click on Leave a comment below.

Alas, I couldn’t find a song to use in this post! If any of you can think of a song which features Advanced non-defining Relative Clauses, please let me know.

Here are more examples of sentences with Advanced non-defining Relative Clauses:

♦ Prince William has two jobs, one of which is being a dad.

♦ Dozens of Actresses dream of winning an Oscar, only one of which wins each year.

♦ Several teams compete for the World Cup, only two of which make it to the Grand Final.

♦ I have sixteen students in my English Vocabulary class, several of whom love surfing.

♦There are eighteen Australian Rules Football Teams, two of which, The Richmond  Tigers and The Adelaide Crows, are in the Grand Final.

♦ I have two sisters, both of whom are younger than me.

♦ My two sisters love AFL football and water skiing, neither of which interests me.

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

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This entry was posted in Advanced (Level 6+), Cambridge, Grammar, IELTS, Upper Intermediate (Level 5), Writing. Bookmark the permalink.

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