Present Perfect Tense – Part 1


(have / has + past participle)

Look at these sentences:

  • Leo’s English improved when he started a course at Langports English College.
  • His English is improving.
  • His English has improved since he started at Langports.

The first sentence gives information about the past, only the past. So we use the Past Simple: improved. We don’t know if Leo’s English continued to improve. We don’t know about his English now.

The second sentence only gives information about what is happening now, what is in progress. So we use Present Continuous: is improving. (Present Continuous is also known as Present Progressive.) This sentence does not tell us about Leo’s past.

The third sentence gives information about the past, the present, and the time which connects the past and present. So, we use Present Perfect: has improved. This sentence gives a lot of information. We know that:

  1.       Leo’s English began to improve after he started at Langports, and …
  2.       During his time at Langports, it continued to improve, until …
  3.       Now. We can see the improvement now.

So, if we want to give information about the past, the present, and the time in between, in one sentence, we can use Present Perfect Tense.

  • Leo’s English has improved  since he started at Langports.
  • He has attended every lesson.
  • Marcello has missed a lot of lessons because of sickness, so his English has not improved.
  • Rihanna has been looking for the ideal man all her life. Check-out her Youtube video: Where have you been? (When we use Present Perfect Tense and want to show that something has been in progress and has not finished, we can use Present Perfect Continuous: has been looking.) In the Youtube video, Rihanna is still looking for him.

* For further explanation of Present Perfect and online exercises, check out


* Enjoy this song which is full of Present Perfect Tense examples.

Song: Where have you been? by Rihanna

Here is a link to a Youtube video of the song with the lyrics (words):

Click here for Present Perfect Tense – Part 2

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Posted in Grammar, Intermediate (Level 4), Listening, Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Songs | Tagged | Leave a comment

A song with Collocations and Idioms

                          Making friends                                      Photo by Alexis Brown on

Photo by Bùi Thanh Tâm on Unsplash

        This university graduate has high hopes.           Photo by Bùi Thanh Tâm on

The English language is full of collocations and idioms.

By collocations, I mean words that naturally go together like high hopes,heavy rain, and ‘make friends. We don’t say ‘tall hopes’, ‘huge rain‘ or ‘produce friends‘. 

Idioms are expressions whose meaning cannot be predicted by the words in the expression; for example, to kick the bucket which means ‘to die’; and to be under the weather(‘to feel sick’).

Today, I’m focusing on a song which contains numerous collocations and idioms. This means that you can enjoy fabulous music and improve your English vocabulary at the same time. Too easy!

Have a look below at the lyrics to the song High Hopes by Panic! At the Disco. 

The collocations are shown in pink and the idioms are blue. Sometimes, it’s not clear whether a group of words is a collocation or an idiom. Don’t worry. Think of them all as expressions that need to be remembered as a fixed chunk. The idioms are linked to an online idioms dictionary. As always, you can listen to the song on YouTube. Click here for the official video. Click here for the video with lyrics. 

Song: High Hopes by Panic! At the Disco. 

Had to have high high hopes for a living;
Shooting for the stars when I couldn’t make a killing.
Didn’t have a dime but I always had a vision;
Always had high high hopes.
Had to have high high hopes for a living;
Didn’t know how but I always had a feeling
I was *gonna be that one in a million; (*going to)
Always had high high hopes.

Brendon Urie

[Verse 1]
Mama said                             
Fulfill the prophecy.
Be something greater.
Go make a legacy.
Manifest destiny.”
Back in the days,
We wanted everything.

Mama said
“Burn your biographies.
Rewrite your history.
Light up your wildest dreams,
Museum victories.”
We wanted everything.

Mama said
“Don’t give up; it’s a little complicated.

All tied up, no more love and I hate to see you waiting.”


[Verse 2]
Mama said
“It’s uphill for oddities,
The stranger crusaders
*Ain’t ever **wannabes.  (*aren’t / **want-to-be)

“No matter how hard your dreams seem, keep going. You might even have to climb up the side of a building in downtown LA, but it’ll all be worth it at the top.
Stay up on that rise … ” Brendon Urie

The weird and the novelties
Don’t ever change.”
We wanted everything.

Stay up on that rise.
Stay up on that rise.
Never come down.
Stay up on that rise.
Stay up on that rise.
Never come down.


[Pre-Chorus 2]
They say it’s all been done but they haven’t seen the best of me,
So I’ve got one more run and it’s gonna be a sight to see.


Posted in Advanced (Level 6+), Intermediate (Level 4), Listening, Songs, Upper Intermediate (Level 5), Vocabulary, Writing | Tagged , | 4 Comments

5 Weak Words to Avoid & What to Use Instead

Weak words are commonly used in everyday English speech. Perhaps we are a little lazy. Perhaps we know that we convey meaning using our tone of voice. No doubt, you have similar common words in your language which are used often in speech. I don’t have a problem with this. 

However, weak words are to be avoided in writing. Check out the following Infographic from and you will see what I mean.

5 Weak Words to Avoid & What to Use Instead (Infographic)

For more English Writing Infographics, click here

If you would like to check out English Infographics about Grammar, Vocabulary, and more, click here.


Posted in Advanced (Level 6+), Cambridge, IELTS, Intermediate (Level 4), Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Upper Intermediate (Level 5), Writing | 1 Comment

Advanced Reading & Writing ∼ Learn from the Best Writers!

Greetings English Learners.

It’s not always easy to find good examples of English writing to show you. Actually, ‘good’ is not good enough! I want ‘brilliant’ examples, and you shall have them!

Of course, there are numerous excellent authors around the globe. However, for short reads in newspapers, magazines, and on the Internet, there is little that I am inclined to promote. Poor grammar, spelling mistakes, and clumsy expression abound! 

Don’t despair! Today, I am presenting more of Nick Cave, an Australian singer, songwriter, author, and screenwriter.  Few people have such a rich vocabulary and can express opinions as articulately as Nick Cave. He has a website, The Red Hand Files, on which he answers random questions. For those of you wishing to improve your writing, I recommend that you put him on your list of writers to emulate and learn from. You don’t have to agree with his opinions to appreciate that he has a brilliant command of the English language. Please read on …

The Red Hand Files Issue #197

ISSUE #197 / JUNE 2022

What are your thoughts on free speech? Do you think it is a right?


For **** sake, enough of the God and Jesus bull****!

Dear Lorraine and Jason,

We humans are subtle and chaotic creatures, full of ambiguities and contradictions, and it is this that makes up our distinctiveness. We are fully and necessarily different from each other, and even though we have the entirely human tendency to reduce each other to generalisations based on arbitrary categorisations of identity, such as race or religion or gender, we must resist as best we can, for it is uncharitable at best to deny any human their rightful individual sovereignty, their specialness. It is our distinctiveness that is the very thing that should be prized.

Each of us is an amalgam of all we have loved and lost and learned, our personal successes and failures, our particular regrets, and our singular joys – and part of that uniqueness is that we think in different ways. Not all of our thinking is right or fully formed, far from it, but … continue reading …

Posted in Advanced (Level 6+), Cambridge, Reading, Writing | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Improve Your English Listening with a Jolly Song!

Hello English Learners!

It’s time for some English Listening! Well, it’s always time for listening. If you enjoy what you are listening to, learning a language is more fun, and more productive. Don’t you agree?

Photo by Jair Medina Nossa

Songs are a fantastic learning tool and today I have a cheerful song for you:  Following the Sun by Neeka & SUPER-HI. Click on the official YouTube video below and/or the music video with lyrics.

♦ It is enough to just listen to songs and sing along.

♦ It is enough to listen to Podcasts or watch television or movies; whatever you enjoy.

Your English will improve if you hear it often. How often? Every day! Acquiring a language takes a long time! Repetition is most important.

If you can understand what I am writing, you are at the right level now to focus on listening more than grammar. You have learned grammar basics. That’s important. The next step is to listen to as much English as possible. Comprehension is important of course, so if you don’t understand at least 80%, the material is too difficult.

Don’t waste your time and energy trying to understand language that is too difficult. You will lose motivation. Your brain works better when you are not stressed. It will naturally make connections with grammar and meaning if you provide regular input. This is how we all acquired our mother tongue.

baby listening in black headset

Photo by Alireza Attari

We don’t start to speak until we have heard a lot of language. We don’t speak well until we are four to six years old. Children make a lot of mistakes. Their mistakes are predictable because their brains are constantly making connections with everything they hear.

For example, regular English verbs add ‘ed’ to the base to form Past Simple:
walk ⇒ walked,   like ⇒ liked,   need ⇒ needed.
As children learn more verbs, they simply add ‘ed’ to show past, even to irregular verbs:

     “We goed to the zoo yesterday.”  X
     “I knowed that!”  X
     ” Mummy buyed me a new dress.”  X

However, they soon learn, with more listening, the correct Past Simple:
go ⇒ went,   know ⇒ knew,    buy ⇒ bought.

Your brain too will constantly make more connections and corrections while you are listening to English. You probably said ‘goed’ when you first started using the past tense. I bet you don’t say it now because you have heard ‘went’ so often. You have the added advantage of being able to read! You could learn the song, Following the Sun, much faster than a six-year-old child who can’t read or understand the lyrics.

Reading is necessary and helps with the listening. This is why I always include the lyrics when I feature songs on this website. It’s okay to translate some words or phrases you don’t know. You will get the best translation if you enter a complete phrase or sentence in the translator.

You will find the song lyrics under the two videos. For those of you who wish to check the grammar, click on the links for explanations.

The language is simple. The Chorus starts with a First Conditional sentence. There are examples of Imperatives. ‘Following’ is a Gerund. I know that many of you are studying to pass exams and the grammar is important. A huge bonus of listening to songs (and singing) is that when you can remember lines from a song, you can remember grammar rules!



Song: Following the Sun

Maybe I don’t *wanna know          *want to
The way home.
Taking on a journey,
I’ve got places to go.
*Wanna chase a miracle?          *(Do you) want to
It’s possible.
You just *gotta open the door.          *got to (have to)

Darling, it’s cold out there.

Don’t fear the road.
Just come along with me.
You’re not alone out there.
Let’s write a song; make up the melody.

If you’re looking for me baby,

You know you can find me
Following the sun.
Somewhere running up my heartbeat,
I don’t look behind me.
Following the sun
Following the sun

Come and give your love away.
Don’t play it safe.
*I’ma let you fall but I won’t let you break.          *I”m going to
*Wanna chase a sunset?          *(Do you) want to
Are you ready yet?
We won’t get this chance every day.



You can lean on…
You can lean on me.
You can lean on…
You can lean on me.


You can lean on…
You can lean on me.
You can lean on…
You can lean on me.


🌝 🌝 🌝 🌝 🌝 🌝 🌝

Source: Musixmatch

Songwriters: Negin Djafari / Katy Tizzard / George Tizzard / Rick Parkhouse

Following The Sun lyrics © Premiere Music Group, Justiz Music, Music Matters Songs

Posted in Elementary (Level 2), Intermediate (Level 4), Listening, Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Reading, Songs, TOEFL, TOEIC, Upper Intermediate (Level 5) | Leave a comment

A song with Possessive Adjectives

When English students first learn Possessive Adjectives, they should feel encouraged. There are only seven forms: my, your, his, her, its, our, & their. That’s all! Many European languages have 14 – 20+ forms, depending on whether the noun is singular, plural, male or female. 

The rules are simple:

Possessive Adjectives always go before the noun; just like articles (the, a, an)  and like most adjectives.

Possessive Adjectives are never used alone.

Possessive Adjectives are adjectives which show ownership. They give information about the noun in the same way as other adjectives

Unlike with many languages, you don’t have to work out if the noun is singular, plural, male, or female. Have a look at the following examples describing the picture:

♦ I took this photo with my camera.  (the camera; new camera, red camera.)

♦ She is my daughter, her name is Olivia and she had just finished her lunch. 

♦ My husband Anthony and I had also finished our lunch

♦ Anthony really enjoyed his meal.

♦ The waiter is looking at a bird which is trying to eat food from a nearby table. The customers are not happy! The bird thinks that their food is its food

♦The waiter cleared the/our table after asking us, “Have you finished your meal? Shall I take your plates?”

As with all new vocabulary, don’t expect to remember it after seeing or hearing it once or twice. You need to practise, practise, practise! The best way to practise is to sing songs. Just listening to songs is not enough. It’s important to read the lyrics while you listen and it’s even better if you sing with the singer.

Learning a language is all about Input and Output. Input is what goes into your brain via listening and reading. Output is what you can produce from what you have learned. It comes out of your brain via speaking,  or writing.

Photo by Bruce Mars

∗ Listening is one approach to improving input.

∗    Reading is a second approach.

 Singing is a third approach because you are listening and perhaps reading the lyrics while you are singing. 

By singing along with a singer for 3-4 minutes, your English input is multiplied by three, and you improve three skills! This is the most valuable way you can spend a few minutes to learn a new language. Don’t you agree?

Do you have time for a 4 minute English lesson now?  … Yes? Excellent! I have a perfect song for you! It’s by Ed Sheeran and the name of the song is “Perfect”. Click here for the official video. Click here for the video with lyrics.

Here are the lyrics with the Possessive Adjectives highlighted in bold green, nouns in pink

Song: Perfect  by Ed Sheeran

I found a love for me.
Darling, just dive right in
And follow my lead.
Well, I found a girl, beautiful and sweet.
I never knew you were the someone waiting for me.

Continue reading

Posted in Intermediate (Level 4), Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Songs, Vocabulary | Leave a comment

A Song with First Conditional, Imperatives, and Collocations

Image result for dua lipa don't start now album cover

Dua Lipa – Don’t Start Now

Dua Lipa sings a song, Don’t Start Now, in which she tells an ex boyfriend very clearly that their relationship is finished and she is not interested in seeing him again. Her life is so much better without him. Her message to him is clear: If you don’t want to see me with another man, don’t look!

Click on the above picture for the official YouTube video. For the YouTube video with lyrics, click here.

Sentences starting with ‘If” are usually conditional sentences, and Dua Lipa is telling her ex what not to do in the future if he doesn’t want to see her with another man. Because she is referring to possible future situations, the sentence structure is First Conditional. Because she is warning him about possible future actions, she uses Imperatives:

Walk away!

Don’t show up;

Don’t come out;

Don’t start caring about me now.

Walk away;

› › › › › › › › ›

You may have studied First Conditional with WILL + Base Infinitive. If you would like to revise the rules for First Conditional with WILL, click here. Today, however,  I’m focusing on First Conditional with Imperative Verbs.


♥ The chorus is one long First Conditional sentence:

If you don’t *wanna see me dancing with somebody;            *want to
If you *wanna believe that anything could stop me,
Don’t show up;
Don’t come out;
Don’t start caring about me now;
Walk away; you know how;
Don’t start caring about me now.

Conditional Sentences are Complex Sentences, which means that they include at least one Dependent Clause (blue print) and at least one Independent Clause (green print). The chorus includes two Dependent Clauses and five Independent Clauses.


                                            ♥ Note the Imperative Verbs


Don’t show up

 Don’t come out

 Don’t start

 Walk away


♥ The song provides numerous Collocations, here in bold:

Did a full one-eighty …
But look at where I ended up.
I’m all good already;

So moved on, it’s scary.
I’m not where you left me at all,
Don’t show up;
Don’t come out;
I’m better on the other side.
Walk away.

Can you work out the meanings of the above collocations? Look at what you can understand. She is telling someone: ‘Don’t … Don’t … Don’t … Don’t … I’m all good … I’m better …”   When Collocations are idioms, you can often work out the meaning if you know the context.     

Did a full one-eighty … 

To do a one-eighty (180°) is to change your thinking and/or actions completely: to think or do the opposite. The singer thinks about the way she was before and the way she is now – from heartbroken (maybe) to ‘all good’.

But look at where I ended up.

To end up is to eventually finish, to end a situation. The singer was possibly heartbroken but at the end, she was ‘all good’. For more examples of ended up, click here.

I’m all good!   I’ve moved on!

I’m all good already

She is not just ‘good’; she is great, completely okay. Don’t worry! (‘Already’ means ‘sooner than expected’.)

 ♦ So moved on

To move on from a relationship means to accept that the relationship is over, finished, and to be ready for a new relationship, a new life.

So … , it’s scary.

So + adjective/adverb, it’s scary, means that something (or someone) is so bad / wonderful / clever etc. that it is hard to believe. The singer has moved on and recovered so quickly and easily from the relationship that it is impressive and hard to believe – it’s scary.

I’m not where you left me at all

Literally, where you left me, means the last place you saw me. However, here it means that she is not the sad, rejected person he said ‘goodbye’ to. She has moved on.


     ♦ Don’t show up

To show up means to arrive. For example, All the employees were expected at the Christmas party but fewer than half showed up.

      ♦ Don’t come out

Meaning: Don’t leave your house. Stay at home. If you don’t want to see me with another man, don’t leave your house!

 the other side

I’m better on the other side. Her life is better now after the end of the relationship. The experience has been like a journey and she has come through to the other side. She is no longer in the journey or experience. She is at a distance from it: the other side.

Walk away.

To walk away from someone or something means to leave or abandon the person or situation. She tells him to walk away, leave her. She reminds him that he knows how to walk away because he had abandoned her more than once. 

For more examples of walk away, click here.

Click here for a free idioms and phrases dictionary. 

      

Posted in Grammar, IELTS, Intermediate (Level 4), Listening, Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Songs, Upper Intermediate (Level 5) | Tagged , , | 2 Comments

Mercy & Cancel Culture – Advanced Reading

Nick Cave is a is an Australian singer, songwriter, author, and screenwriter. On his website, The Red Hand Files, he answers questions from fans, any questions about anything. In this post, I’m featuring his eloquent response to the questions: What is mercy for you? What do you think of cancel culture? 



The Red Hand Files

What is mercy for you?



What do you think of cancel culture?


Dear Valerio and Frances,

Mercy is a value that should be at the heart of any functioning and tolerant society. Mercy ultimately acknowledges that we are all imperfect and in doing so allows us the oxygen to breathe — to feel protected within a society, through our mutual fallibility. Without mercy a society loses its soul, and devours itself.

Mercy allows us the ability to engage openly in free-ranging conversation — an expansion of collective discovery toward a common good. If mercy is our guide we have a safety net of mutual consideration, and we can, to quote Oscar Wilde, “play gracefully with ideas.”

Yet mercy is not a given. It is a value we must nurture and aspire to. Tolerance allows the spirit of enquiry the confidence to roam freely, to make mistakes, to self-correct, to be bold, to dare to doubt and in the process to chance upon new and more advanced ideas. Without mercy society grows inflexible, fearful, vindictive and humourless.

Frances, you’ve asked about cancel culture. As far as I can see, Read more … 


Posted in Advanced (Level 6+), Cambridge, Reading, Writing | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Phrasal Verbs: 3 Easy Rules

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal Verbs: come back, run off with, go around, wear out, ……….

There are just 3 things to know if you want to understand and remember Phrasal Verbs:

1. Phrasal Verbs are Vocabulary.

2. There are two types: a)Separable and

3. When they are Separable, the pronoun must always go in the middle.

Phrasal Verb: get up .....................

Phrasal Verb: get up .………………..

Phrasal Verb: give up …………………..

1. Phrasal Verbs are Vocabulary.

Phrasal Verbs are verbs plus one or more words which change the meaning of the verb. Think of them as one vocabulary unit with one meaning

You know the meaning of the verb give.

1. Please give me that football.

 You also know the meaning of give up.

2. I’m not a great football player but I’m never going to give up!

Sentences 1. and 2. both use the word give, but the meaning is different.

It’s important to learn and remember that the Phrasal Verb give up means *to stop an activity or effort : to admit that you cannot do something and stop trying It has no connection with the word give or the word up. No-one is giving anything. No-one is looking up.

*This is a link to the definition of give up in the online dictionary You will need to scroll down, down, down to the phrasal verb section to find the definition that I’ve included above. You may have to click on give verb first.

How can you learn all these Phrasal Verbs? Well, how do you learn other vocabulary? Here are my suggestions. Check:


♦  Google – Images
     For more Phrasal Verb Cartoons, click here.



Don’t worry if it takes you a long time to work out the meanings of the Phrasal Verbs. While you are trying to work out the meanings (using my suggestions), you are learning much more than you realise. You are learning how to use the new vocabulary in context.

When you look up Phrasal Verbs like give up, you will see how the word give has multiple meanings. You will see that give up is not the only Phrasal Verb that starts with the word give. The two minutes you spend looking up give up will be a mini lesson; you will learn so much more than just one phrasal verb.

For a list from of the 200 most common Phrasal Verbs, with explanations and example sentences, click here.

2. There are two types: a)Separable and

Sometimes you can separate the words that make up a Phrasal Verb:

I really need to give up smoking.

Everyone tells me that I need to give smoking up.

Everyone tells me that I need to give it up.

Sometimes, you cannot separate the words that make up a Phrasal Verb. (‘Non-separable’ means that you must not separate the words.)

You should stick to your exercise routine.

I can’t go around like this! (go around = to go here and there; move from place to place)

Charlie Brown looks after his dog Snoopy.

        I got up early today to study for my exam.

Non-separable Phrasal Verbs are not hard to remember and students don’t make the mistake of separating them. I have never heard a student separate a non-separable Phrasal Verb. I have never, ever, ever heard anything like:

You should stick your exercise routine to .

I can’t go like this  around.

I look my dog after.

        I got early up today to study for my exam.

There is a good reason why English learners don’t make the mistake of separating Non-separable Phrasal Verbs. They sound really bad if you separate them! This is an easy rule to remember. However, you need to know it because of rule #3.

3. When  Phrasal Verbs are Separable, the pronoun must always go in the middle.


I’ll wear out my sock!

I’ll wear my sock out!

I’ll wear it out.                                      

Buying records cheers up my friends.

Buying records cheers  my friends up.

Buying records cheers them up.

You should give up smoking.

You should give smoking up.

You should give it up.

Phrasal Verbs like wear out, cheer up, and give up can be separated. If you use a pronoun, you must, must, must, put it in the middle. You cannot put it after the Phrasal Verb. You cannot say:

I’ll wear out it .   

Buying records cheers up them.

You should give up it .

Have a look at the 200 examples of common Phrasal Verbs with explanations and example sentences at English Club. Take note of the Non-separable Phrasal Verbs. They are the ones  with pronouns after the Phrasal Verbs. For example:

We called on you last night but you weren’t home.

I am counting on you to make dinner while I am out.

Now, take note of the Separable Phrasal Verbs. They are the ones  with pronouns or nouns in the middle of the Phrasal Verbs.

For example:

My wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job.

This sad music is bringing me down.

His wife gave him away to the police.

        Our teacher broke the final project down into three separate parts.

         I need to break these shoes in before we run next week.

        Do your coat up before you go outside. It’s snowing!

So, there you have it. Remember the three rules and don’t worry. You already know a lot of phrasal verbs. They are just more vocabulary. Look at the list of 200 Phrasal Verbs. Read the explanations and examples. It won’t take long to learn the meanings. The main thing to remember is: do not put the pronoun after a separable Phrasal Verb! If you can put it in the middle, you must put it there!

Have fun and just think of how much you are improving your English knowledge every time you learn a new Phrasal Verb!


Posted in Grammar, Intermediate (Level 4), Upper Intermediate (Level 5), Vocabulary, Writing | Tagged | 4 Comments

Improve your English with a British Council approved tutor

Hello students!
As you know, I’m taking a break from teaching English (while I complete my e-book). Meanwhile, I have found the perfect online option for you! The best advice I can give to all my English students is to get a tutor.

I’ve partnered with EnglishScore Tutors –  British Council’s official 1:1 tutoring platform.

I have  used the excellent resources provided by British Council frequently on this website. Because of this, I am confident that their one-on-one tutoring service would help you improve your spoken English, vocabulary, and more, with instant feedback and support.

It’s comforting to keep in mind that English Second Language Teachers can often speak  a second or third language themselves. You can practise with your British Council approved English tutor and not be worried about mistakes or pronunciation because they have experienced them themselves!

EnglishScore Tutors is British Council’s Official 1-to-1 tutoring service, helping over 12,500 adults and young learners improve their English. The platform hosts over 150 qualified English tutors who are available for private classes 24/7, which will work with your busy schedule. 

Whether you are looking to improve your business English, prepare for an exam like IELTS, or just gain confidence speaking, EnglishScore Tutors offers you personalised sessions designed around you and your goals.

The good news is that you can try your first 30 minute session for just $1. Really!

Get your $1 lesson here.

I’d love to get some feedback! Let me know about your experience with  EnglishScore Tutors. 

Posted in Advanced (Level 6+), Cambridge, Children, Elementary (Level 2), IELTS, Intermediate (Level 4), Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Speaking & Pronunciation, TOEFL, TOEIC, Upper Intermediate (Level 5) | Leave a comment
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