Gerunds & Infinitives – What is the difference?


Gerunds are usually nouns but they are different from other nouns because they are made from verbs.

Changing verbs into other forms: nouns or adjectives, for example, is common in many languages. Think about how your language changes verbs into other forms as you continue reading. 

♦ Gerunds are always singular: Cooking dinner takes a long time.
                                                         Cooking is hard work.
♦ The ‘ing’ form of the verb is always used: However, I love cooking

♦ Gerunds are the names of activities: eating, drinking, playing, watching, skiing, horse-riding. Can you see a pattern here? When we want a word to name the activity (noun) caused by the verb, we often use a gerund.

Cooking is LOVE you can taste.

If you can replace a gerund with a pronoun, for example, ‘it’, then the gerund must be a noun! Pronouns can only replace nouns. (pro = for) Here are the above three sentences with the gerund, cooking, replaced with ‘it‘:

It takes a long time.

It is hard work.

I love it!

♦ Gerunds are very common in everyday spoken English. They can be the Subject, the Object, or the Complement in a sentence:

Changing verbs into other forms is common in many languages. (Subject: ‘Changing verbs into other forms’ is a gerund phrase. You can replace all of it with the pronoun ‘it’: It is common in many languages.)

Skiing is a popular winter sport. (Subject)

Children seem to learn skiing easily. (Object of ‘learn’)

The most popular winter sport in many countries is skiing. (Complement of ‘is’)

In the sentence, “Anthony saw some sharks when he was snorkelling in the Philippines last year.”, “snorkelling” is a participle part of the verb “was snorkelling”. 

In the sentence, “My children love snorkelling“, “snorkelling” is a noun. It is the object of “love“. An object is a noun. 

∗  Note that in the above sentence, there is no indication that the children are actually snorkelling, unlike Anthony who was no doubt swimming very quickly after he saw the sharks. All we know is that the children love that activity. “My children love it.” The word “it” is the object of “love”. The pronoun “it” replaces “snorkelling” in the above sentence, so “snorkelling” must be a noun. It is a Gerund.

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦


Infinitives are the names of verbs: TO + BASE VERB. For example: to be, to have, to go, to look, to swim. When you look up a verb in a dictionary, it is the Base form that is listed first. Infinitives and Base verbs have no tense. 

It is very common to use more than one verb in a clause.  However, only one tense per clause is permitted! Again, think about your language and the rules for verbs. Infinitives have no tense, so they are used to add information without affecting the tense of the verb, without affecting ‘when’:

I want to study Architecture at University. (want = Present Simple Tense)

I wanted to study Architecture at school, but it wasn’t a school subject. (wanted = Past Simple Tense)

Photo by Alex Vasey

I have wanted to study Architecture ever since I saw the Leaning Tower of Pisa. (have wanted = Present Perfect Tense)

In the main clause of the above three sentences, the different forms of the verb ‘want’ show tense. The infinitive ‘to study’ adds meaning only.

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 


It is important to know when to use Gerunds after verbs and when to use Infinitives after verbs.

♦ Some verbs can be followed by a Gerund or an Infinitive:

I love going out on Saturday nights with my friends.

I love to go out on Saturday nights with my friends.


♦ Some verbs cannot be followed by an Infinitive. If you want to follow the verb with another verb, you have to use a Gerund:

I finished cleaning the house at 10pm.  I finished to clean the house at 10pm.                                               
 I enjoy going out with my friends. I enjoy to go out with my friends.

Of course, you can follow ‘finished’ and ‘enjoy’ with other word forms:

I finished my exams yesterday. (verb + noun + adverb)

I enjoy funny movies. (verb + adjective + noun)

♦ Other verbs cannot be followed by a Gerund. If you want to follow the verb with another verb, you have to use an infinitive:

Rou decided to study English in Australia.  Rou decided studying  English in Australia.

After that, she is planning to continue her studies in Taiwan. After that, she is planning continuing her studies in Taiwan.

Of course, you can follow ‘decided’ and ‘is planning’ with other word forms:

Rou decided on a holiday in Spain. (verb + preposition + noun)

After that, she is planning further study. (verb + adjective + noun)

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦


There is no easy rule to help you know if a verb is followed by a Gerund or an Infinitive. The way I see the difference is (usually) this:

Gerunds describe an activity (IT). It might not happen.

Infinitives describe an action (TO DO IT) which happens/happened/will happen. 

Have a look at these two sentences:

1. I love cooking.

2. I love to cook on the weekends when my parents visit.

My husband the chef. Photo by Mario 


1. I love cooking. (I love it.)

I love watching Masterchef and *cooking videos on Youtube. I have some excellent recipe books. I love food and trying new dishes. I do all the food shopping. However, I never cook because my husband is a chef! (*cooking = adjective gerund)


2. I love to cook on the weekends when my parents visit. (I love to do it.)

I do it when my parents visit. What do I do? I cook.

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Try to remember the difference between gerunds and infinitives the way you learn new vocabulary. Online exercises are a good way to practise and remember:

Click here for a website that categorizes which types of common verbs are followed by gerunds and which types of common verbs are are followed by infinitives. It is an excellent reference.
The site also lists songs which feature gerunds. However, not every word ending in ‘ing’ is a gerund! Some are participles; some are part of reduced Relative Clauses. I have focused on one of the songs, ‘Feel’ by Robbie Williams. Watch the video below and then check the lyrics. I have highlighted the gerunds in bold pink and the infinitives in bold blue.

Click here to see a list of verbs followed by Infinitives. This link will take you to verbs followed by Gerunds

• For more information and practice exercises click here.

Song: FEEL by Robbie Williams

Come and hold my hand.
I *wanna contact the living.    (*wanna contact = want to contact)
Not sure I understand
This role I’ve been given.
I sit and talk to God
And he just laughs at my plans.
My head speaks a language
I don’t understand.

I just *wanna feel     (wanna feel = want to feel)
Real love; feel the home that I live in,
‘Cause I’ve got too much life
Running through my veins,
Going to waste.
I don’t *wanna die     (*wanna die = want to die)
But I **ain’t keen on living either.     (**ain’t = am not)
Before I fall in love,
I’m preparing to leave her.

(I) Scare myself to death.
That’s why I keep on running.
Before I’ve arrived,
I can see myself coming.

I just *wanna feel    (wanna feel = want to feel)
Real love; feel the home that I live in,
‘Cause I’ve got too much life
Running through my veins,
Going to waste;
And I need to feel
Real love and the love ever after.
I cannot get enough.

♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥ ♥

Posted in Grammar, Intermediate (Level 4), Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), TOEIC, Upper Intermediate (Level 5) | Leave a comment

Difficult Pronunciation & How to Remember It – Part 1

Greetings English Learners! This will be my last Post for this year and I have decided to focus on common English words that many of you find difficult to pronounce. My students can usually pronounce these difficult words if I give them an easy keyword containing the same sound.

For example, how would you pronounce the word ache? (Headache earache, toothache) It’s not easy, is it? However, I’m sure you can say make. Take off the and you have the same sound: ..ake = acheEasy! 

Check-out the table below. The same sounds are in orange. The Practice sound examples are underlined. Practise saying the words and your speaking and confidence will certainly improve! 

Difficult Words Key Words Practice & Pictures
bought, thought,
taught, caught
sort What sort of fish have you caught?              🐠 🐟 🐠 🐟 🐠
bus just,
Oh no! I just missed the bus!
make Too much music makes my head ache.      😫
stomach sick I feel sick in my stomach.
it’ll little Remove the l from little and you will be able to say it’ll. It’ll take just a little practice!
enough, rough,
stuff Stop! That’s enough rough  stuff!

through do / food Do you ever go through all the food in the fridge? 
busy      business His business is very busy. 
busy, coffee bee I’m as bus y   as a  bee. 🐝
Too bus y   for coffee.
manage, baggage fridge Who managed to put my baggage in the fridge?!
would, should, could good /
It would be good if you could chop some wood.
man holding brown axe towards firewood on selective focus photography
love Vampires love blood.
said     bed  Doctor Ted said, “Ed, go to bed!” 🛌
says   fez Des says the fez is for Les.
Les says the fez is for Des.
suite    sweet There were sweet treats and Champagne in our Honeymoon suite.

queue q / cue To pronounce this strange word, just say the first letter – q.
Don’t wait for a cue (a sign); wait in the queue.
since sin city How long since you visited Sin City?
sew   so So, Jo taught you to sew, did she?
suit fruit Why do you have fruit in your suit pocket?
man in black suit jacket with blue necktie

* That’s all for now. Make sure you click ‘Follow’ if you would like to receive Part 2 and more Posts to help you in your English journey.  

See below for a playlist of Christmas songs, with subtitles so you can song along, by Michael Buble.

✨ I wish you all the blessings of Christmas and a Happy, Healthy, & Prosperous New Year!

Posted in Elementary (Level 2), Intermediate (Level 4), Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Speaking & Pronunciation, Vocabulary | 3 Comments

Do you know how to talk about Social Media and the Internet in English ?

Here’s another post from Vocabulary in Chunks that I hope you’ll enjoy.

Listening to videos like these is easy English practice. I know that studying a language can be hard work so you need to find a way to enjoy it whenever possible. If you enjoy these videos, have a look at their other videos. As the name suggests, “Vocabulary in Chunks” focuses on teaching groups of English words together. This is the best way to learn new language.

If you don’t understand some of the ‘chunks’, don’t translate single words. Translate the whole chunk and you will get a better explanation. First, try to work out the meanings from the context and the visuals. Enjoy!


We use the internet and social media sites all the time to stay connected and understand what’s happening around us. In this episode, learn the vocabulary you need to know to talk about this topic.

How do you learn something online? 

We asked people on the street what they were learning online and how they were doing it.

🖥  🖥  🖥  🖥  🖥

Posted in Elementary (Level 2), Intermediate (Level 4), Listening, Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Vocabulary | 5 Comments

Spelling Mistakes that Ruin your Writing

English spelling is not easy for anyone learning English as a second language. It may surprise you to learn that many native English speakers are not good at spelling in their native language. They know that spelling is very important for writing a job application or an essay for university exams and bad spelling can make them seem to be uneducated or lacking basic English skills.

The following spelling mistakes are more serious because they also reveal poor grammar. However, don’t worry! The grammar is basic and easily learnt. Let’s have a look at the problem words:   

a) they’re,  there,  their

b) we’re,   where,

c) you’re,   your

d) it’s,   its


a) they’re, there, their

All have the same pronunciation: UK  /ðeər/ US  /ðer/

they’re contraction of they are: they (pronoun)are (verb) 

They’re friends.                                          
They’re very happy.
They’re smiling.

there adverb of place      

There are two women in the picture on the right.
There is no sign of rain.
They left their swimsuits over there.

♦ their – possessive adjective, always followed by a noun

What are their names?
What are their children’s names?
Their hair is dark and curly.


b) we’re,   where

There are two correct pronunciations of we’re (1): UK  /wɪər/ US  /wɪr/

The same pronunciation of where and we’re (2): UK  /weər/ US  /wer/

♦ we’re contraction of we are: we (pronoun)are (verb) 

We’re from Knoxville, USA.           
We’re having a laugh.
We’re friends.

where adverb, conjunction, question word

The two men in the photo met recently but I don’t know where.
Could you tell me where they  are from?
Where are they from? They’re from Knoxville, USA.


c) you’re,   your

Both have the same pronunciation: UK  strong /jɔːr/ weak /r/ US  /jʊr/ //

♦ you’re contraction of you are: you (pronoun)are (verb) 

You’re an English student, aren’t you? Perhaps, you’re a writer?
If you’re studying English, you’re sure to find some helpful tips on this website.

♦ your possessive adjective, always followed by a noun

Your time is valuable. I’m interested in your English progress, so you’re very welcome to write to me with any questions. Just click on Contact Me at the top of this page.

LA PEDRERA, Barcelona, Spain

You’re crazy!

Lily: You’re so lucky to live in Barcelona. Your city is magnificent!

Isabela: You’re still going to visit during the term break, aren’t you?

Lily: I’d love to but your apartment is tiny. I should book a hotel nearby. 

Isabela: You’re doing no such thing! You can sleep on the couch if that’s okay. There’s so much to do in Barcelona! We can rent red vespas and do cooking courses for starters. Then we can go skydiving.

Lily: Skydiving! You’re joking! I can’t ride a vespa and you know I can’t cook! You’re crazy Isabela but thanks for the couch though. 

Isabela: You’re welcome! 


d) it’s,   its

Pronunciation: UK  /ɪts/ US  /ɪts/

♦ it’s contraction of it is OR it has: it (pronoun) + is (verb) OR has (verb)

It’s is a contraction just like you’re and we’re and they’re (he’s, she’s, etc). Like them, it must have an apostrophe () to replace the missing letter/s.

The little monkey thinks it’s going to fall.
The little monkey thinks it is going to fall.

It’s been holding on for a long time.
It has been holding on for a long time.

  ♦ its – possessive adjective, always followed by a noun, never has an apostrophe 

Its is a possessive adjective just like your and their (her, his, etc). Like them, it does not have an apostrophe. There are no missing letters.

The monkey is riding on its mother’s back. The monkey is riding on her back.
Look at its funny ears!

It’s riding on its mother’s back.   It’s waiting for its dinner.

Click here for Spelling Mistakes that Ruin your Writing #2


Posted in Advanced (Level 6+), IELTS, Intermediate (Level 4), Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Upper Intermediate (Level 5), Writing | Tagged | 1 Comment

Present Perfect Tense – Part 1


(have / has + past participle)

Look at these sentences:

  • Leo’s English improved when he started a course at Langports English College.
  • His English is improving.
  • His English has improved since he started at Langports.

The first sentence gives information about the past, only the past. So we use the Past Simple: improved. We don’t know if Leo’s English continued to improve. We don’t know about his English now.

The second sentence only gives information about what is happening now, what is in progress. So we use Present Continuous: is improving. (Present Continuous is also known as Present Progressive.) This sentence does not tell us about Leo’s past.

The third sentence gives information about the past, the present, and the time which connects the past and present. So, we use Present Perfect: has improved. This sentence gives a lot of information. We know that:

  1.       Leo’s English began to improve after he started at Langports, and …
  2.       During his time at Langports, it continued to improve, until …
  3.       Now. We can see the improvement now.

So, if we want to give information about the past, the present, and the time in between, in one sentence, we can use Present Perfect Tense.

  • Leo’s English has improved  since he started at Langports.
  • He has attended every lesson.
  • Marcello has missed a lot of lessons because of sickness, so his English has not improved.
  • Rihanna has been looking for the ideal man all her life. Check-out her Youtube video: Where have you been? (When we use Present Perfect Tense and want to show that something has been in progress and has not finished, we can use Present Perfect Continuous: has been looking.) In the Youtube video, Rihanna is still looking for him.

* For further explanation of Present Perfect and online exercises, check out


* Enjoy this song which is full of Present Perfect Tense examples.

Song: Where have you been? by Rihanna

Here is a link to a Youtube video of the song with the lyrics (words):

Click here for Present Perfect Tense – Part 2

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Posted in Grammar, Intermediate (Level 4), Listening, Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Songs | Tagged | Leave a comment

A song with Collocations and Idioms

                          Making friends                                      Photo by Alexis Brown on

Photo by Bùi Thanh Tâm on Unsplash

        This university graduate has high hopes.           Photo by Bùi Thanh Tâm on

The English language is full of collocations and idioms.

By collocations, I mean words that naturally go together like high hopes,heavy rain, and ‘make friends. We don’t say ‘tall hopes’, ‘huge rain‘ or ‘produce friends‘. 

Idioms are expressions whose meaning cannot be predicted by the words in the expression; for example, to kick the bucket which means ‘to die’; and to be under the weather(‘to feel sick’).

Today, I’m focusing on a song which contains numerous collocations and idioms. This means that you can enjoy fabulous music and improve your English vocabulary at the same time. Too easy!

Have a look below at the lyrics to the song High Hopes by Panic! At the Disco. 

The collocations are shown in pink and the idioms are blue. Sometimes, it’s not clear whether a group of words is a collocation or an idiom. Don’t worry. Think of them all as expressions that need to be remembered as a fixed chunk. The idioms are linked to an online idioms dictionary. As always, you can listen to the song on YouTube. Click here for the official video. Click here for the video with lyrics. 

Song: High Hopes by Panic! At the Disco. 

Had to have high high hopes for a living;
Shooting for the stars when I couldn’t make a killing.
Didn’t have a dime but I always had a vision;
Always had high high hopes.
Had to have high high hopes for a living;
Didn’t know how but I always had a feeling
I was *gonna be that one in a million; (*going to)
Always had high high hopes.

Brendon Urie

[Verse 1]
Mama said                             
Fulfill the prophecy.
Be something greater.
Go make a legacy.
Manifest destiny.”
Back in the days,
We wanted everything.

Mama said
“Burn your biographies.
Rewrite your history.
Light up your wildest dreams,
Museum victories.”
We wanted everything.

Mama said
“Don’t give up; it’s a little complicated.

All tied up, no more love and I hate to see you waiting.”


[Verse 2]
Mama said
“It’s uphill for oddities,
The stranger crusaders
*Ain’t ever **wannabes.  (*aren’t / **want-to-be)

“No matter how hard your dreams seem, keep going. You might even have to climb up the side of a building in downtown LA, but it’ll all be worth it at the top.
Stay up on that rise … ” Brendon Urie

The weird and the novelties
Don’t ever change.”
We wanted everything.

Stay up on that rise.
Stay up on that rise.
Never come down.
Stay up on that rise.
Stay up on that rise.
Never come down.


[Pre-Chorus 2]
They say it’s all been done but they haven’t seen the best of me,
So I’ve got one more run and it’s gonna be a sight to see.


Posted in Advanced (Level 6+), Intermediate (Level 4), Listening, Songs, Upper Intermediate (Level 5), Vocabulary, Writing | Tagged , | 6 Comments

5 Weak Words to Avoid & What to Use Instead

Weak words are commonly used in everyday English speech. Perhaps we are a little lazy. Perhaps we know that we convey meaning using our tone of voice. No doubt, you have similar common words in your language which are used often in speech. I don’t have a problem with this. 

However, weak words are to be avoided in writing. Check out the following Infographic from and you will see what I mean.

5 Weak Words to Avoid & What to Use Instead (Infographic)

For more English Writing Infographics, click here

If you would like to check out English Infographics about Grammar, Vocabulary, and more, click here.


Posted in Advanced (Level 6+), Cambridge, IELTS, Intermediate (Level 4), Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Upper Intermediate (Level 5), Writing | 1 Comment

Advanced Reading & Writing ∼ Learn from the Best Writers!

Greetings English Learners.

It’s not always easy to find good examples of English writing to show you. Actually, ‘good’ is not good enough! I want ‘brilliant’ examples, and you shall have them!

Of course, there are numerous excellent authors around the globe. However, for short reads in newspapers, magazines, and on the Internet, there is little that I am inclined to promote. Poor grammar, spelling mistakes, and clumsy expression abound! 

Don’t despair! Today, I am presenting more of Nick Cave, an Australian singer, songwriter, author, and screenwriter.  Few people have such a rich vocabulary and can express opinions as articulately as Nick Cave. He has a website, The Red Hand Files, on which he answers random questions. For those of you wishing to improve your writing, I recommend that you put him on your list of writers to emulate and learn from. You don’t have to agree with his opinions to appreciate that he has a brilliant command of the English language. Please read on …

The Red Hand Files Issue #197

ISSUE #197 / JUNE 2022

What are your thoughts on free speech? Do you think it is a right?


For **** sake, enough of the God and Jesus bull****!

Dear Lorraine and Jason,

We humans are subtle and chaotic creatures, full of ambiguities and contradictions, and it is this that makes up our distinctiveness. We are fully and necessarily different from each other, and even though we have the entirely human tendency to reduce each other to generalisations based on arbitrary categorisations of identity, such as race or religion or gender, we must resist as best we can, for it is uncharitable at best to deny any human their rightful individual sovereignty, their specialness. It is our distinctiveness that is the very thing that should be prized.

Each of us is an amalgam of all we have loved and lost and learned, our personal successes and failures, our particular regrets, and our singular joys – and part of that uniqueness is that we think in different ways. Not all of our thinking is right or fully formed, far from it, but … continue reading …

Posted in Advanced (Level 6+), Cambridge, Reading, Writing | Tagged , | Leave a comment

Improve Your English Listening with a Jolly Song!

Hello English Learners!

It’s time for some English Listening! Well, it’s always time for listening. If you enjoy what you are listening to, learning a language is more fun, and more productive. Don’t you agree?

Photo by Jair Medina Nossa

Songs are a fantastic learning tool and today I have a cheerful song for you:  Following the Sun by Neeka & SUPER-HI. Click on the official YouTube video below and/or the music video with lyrics.

♦ It is enough to just listen to songs and sing along.

♦ It is enough to listen to Podcasts or watch television or movies; whatever you enjoy.

Your English will improve if you hear it often. How often? Every day! Acquiring a language takes a long time! Repetition is most important.

If you can understand what I am writing, you are at the right level now to focus on listening more than grammar. You have learned grammar basics. That’s important. The next step is to listen to as much English as possible. Comprehension is important of course, so if you don’t understand at least 80%, the material is too difficult.

Don’t waste your time and energy trying to understand language that is too difficult. You will lose motivation. Your brain works better when you are not stressed. It will naturally make connections with grammar and meaning if you provide regular input. This is how we all acquired our mother tongue.

baby listening in black headset

Photo by Alireza Attari

We don’t start to speak until we have heard a lot of language. We don’t speak well until we are four to six years old. Children make a lot of mistakes. Their mistakes are predictable because their brains are constantly making connections with everything they hear.

For example, regular English verbs add ‘ed’ to the base to form Past Simple:
walk ⇒ walked,   like ⇒ liked,   need ⇒ needed.
As children learn more verbs, they simply add ‘ed’ to show past, even to irregular verbs:

     “We goed to the zoo yesterday.”  X
     “I knowed that!”  X
     ” Mummy buyed me a new dress.”  X

However, they soon learn, with more listening, the correct Past Simple:
go ⇒ went,   know ⇒ knew,    buy ⇒ bought.

Your brain too will constantly make more connections and corrections while you are listening to English. You probably said ‘goed’ when you first started using the past tense. I bet you don’t say it now because you have heard ‘went’ so often. You have the added advantage of being able to read! You could learn the song, Following the Sun, much faster than a six-year-old child who can’t read or understand the lyrics.

Reading is necessary and helps with the listening. This is why I always include the lyrics when I feature songs on this website. It’s okay to translate some words or phrases you don’t know. You will get the best translation if you enter a complete phrase or sentence in the translator.

You will find the song lyrics under the two videos. For those of you who wish to check the grammar, click on the links for explanations.

The language is simple. The Chorus starts with a First Conditional sentence. There are examples of Imperatives. ‘Following’ is a Gerund. I know that many of you are studying to pass exams and the grammar is important. A huge bonus of listening to songs (and singing) is that when you can remember lines from a song, you can remember grammar rules!



Song: Following the Sun

Maybe I don’t *wanna know          *want to
The way home.
Taking on a journey,
I’ve got places to go.
*Wanna chase a miracle?          *(Do you) want to
It’s possible.
You just *gotta open the door.          *got to (have to)

Darling, it’s cold out there.

Don’t fear the road.
Just come along with me.
You’re not alone out there.
Let’s write a song; make up the melody.

If you’re looking for me baby,

You know you can find me
Following the sun.
Somewhere running up my heartbeat,
I don’t look behind me.
Following the sun
Following the sun

Come and give your love away.
Don’t play it safe.
*I’ma let you fall but I won’t let you break.          *I”m going to
*Wanna chase a sunset?          *(Do you) want to
Are you ready yet?
We won’t get this chance every day.



You can lean on…
You can lean on me.
You can lean on…
You can lean on me.


You can lean on…
You can lean on me.
You can lean on…
You can lean on me.


🌝 🌝 🌝 🌝 🌝 🌝 🌝

Source: Musixmatch

Songwriters: Negin Djafari / Katy Tizzard / George Tizzard / Rick Parkhouse

Following The Sun lyrics © Premiere Music Group, Justiz Music, Music Matters Songs

Posted in Elementary (Level 2), Intermediate (Level 4), Listening, Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Reading, Songs, TOEFL, TOEIC, Upper Intermediate (Level 5) | Leave a comment

A song with Possessive Adjectives

When English students first learn Possessive Adjectives, they should feel encouraged. There are only seven forms: my, your, his, her, its, our, & their. That’s all! Many European languages have 14 – 20+ forms, depending on whether the noun is singular, plural, male or female. 

The rules are simple:

Possessive Adjectives always go before the noun; just like articles (the, a, an)  and like most adjectives.

Possessive Adjectives are never used alone.

Possessive Adjectives are adjectives which show ownership. They give information about the noun in the same way as other adjectives

Unlike with many languages, you don’t have to work out if the noun is singular, plural, male, or female. Have a look at the following examples describing the picture:

♦ I took this photo with my camera.  (the camera; new camera, red camera.)

♦ She is my daughter, her name is Olivia and she had just finished her lunch. 

♦ My husband Anthony and I had also finished our lunch

♦ Anthony really enjoyed his meal.

♦ The waiter is looking at a bird which is trying to eat food from a nearby table. The customers are not happy! The bird thinks that their food is its food

♦The waiter cleared the/our table after asking us, “Have you finished your meal? Shall I take your plates?”

As with all new vocabulary, don’t expect to remember it after seeing or hearing it once or twice. You need to practise, practise, practise! The best way to practise is to sing songs. Just listening to songs is not enough. It’s important to read the lyrics while you listen and it’s even better if you sing with the singer.

Learning a language is all about Input and Output. Input is what goes into your brain via listening and reading. Output is what you can produce from what you have learned. It comes out of your brain via speaking,  or writing.

Photo by Bruce Mars

∗ Listening is one approach to improving input.

∗    Reading is a second approach.

 Singing is a third approach because you are listening and perhaps reading the lyrics while you are singing. 

By singing along with a singer for 3-4 minutes, your English input is multiplied by three, and you improve three skills! This is the most valuable way you can spend a few minutes to learn a new language. Don’t you agree?

Do you have time for a 4 minute English lesson now?  … Yes? Excellent! I have a perfect song for you! It’s by Ed Sheeran and the name of the song is “Perfect”. Click here for the official video. Click here for the video with lyrics.

Here are the lyrics with the Possessive Adjectives highlighted in bold green, nouns in pink

Song: Perfect  by Ed Sheeran

I found a love for me.
Darling, just dive right in
And follow my lead.
Well, I found a girl, beautiful and sweet.
I never knew you were the someone waiting for me.

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Posted in Intermediate (Level 4), Pre-Intermediate (Level 3), Songs, Vocabulary | Leave a comment